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Microphone

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  • Device use to convert sound waves into electrical signals.
  • Consists of diaphragm located at the head of microphone and other components.
  • Commonly used in day-today life in telephones, tape recorders, radio and television broadcasting.

Working :

  • Diaphragm is made up of thin piece of material such as paper, plastic or aluminium.
  • Diaphragm vibrates when it is strucked by sound waves.
  • This causes other components in microphone to vibrate.
  • These vibrations are converted into electric current which becomes audio signals.

Types :

Dynamic Microphones

  • Consists of induction coil, magnet and a plastic diaphragm.
  • It uses electromagnetic principle to convert sound energy into electrical energy.
  • Diaphragm is attached to the coil, between two magnets which makes it enclose in magnetic field.
  • When sound hits the diaphragm it vibrates and creates an electric current.
  • This electric current is too little to make a sound so it is passed to sound amplifier to increase the strength.
  • Less expensive and not efficient quality of recording.
  • Used in recording of drum, guitar and other musical instruments.

Condenser Microphones

  • Capacitor is used in it to convert acoustical energy to electrical energy.
  • Capacitor consists of two conducting plates inside the microphone, one is fixed and other is free to move made up of very light material that acts as a diaphragm.
  • Diaphragm vibrates when it is struck by sound waves, this changes the distance between two plates and creates a change in the capacitance which produces electric current.
  • Expensive than dynamic microphones since quality of sound is better.
  • Used in studio recording.

Microphones are also classified depending upon the audio capturing patterns as

Omni directional:

  • Captures sound from all the directions.
  • Best suited for group discussion and for good quality sound, mic should be held near.

Unidirectional:

  • Captures sound from a specific point and blocks surrounding noise.
  • Great for focusing on specific sound like recording drum beats in studio.

Cardioid:

  • Captures sounds mostly from front, some from side and bit from behind.
  • Pattern shape is somewhat heart-shaped.
  • Used in handheld microphones.

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Tip Box

Recording sound

  • Use specific type of microphone for better quality.
  • Keep a some distance between your sound source and microphone.
  • Check and test the microphone before getting started.
  • Record sound in closed room to avoid background effects.
  • Dont make it too fancy, but keep it simple.

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