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Logic Gates

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Computers and digital component use binary 0 and 1, where 0 is low voltage (0 volts) and 1 is high voltage (+5 volts). Binary information is carried by signals and manipulation of binary information is done by logic circuits called as gates.

A circuit whose input and output signals are two states on and off. A gate is logic circuit with one or more input signals but only one output signal.

Basic types of Gates :

AND Gate

  • Two or more input signals and one output signal.
  • Output is high when both the inputs are high.
  • Logic equation Y = A . B called as Boolean equation.
  • Where A and B are the inputs and Y is the output for all standard symbols of gates shown below.

OR Gate

  • Two or more input signals and one output signal.
  • Output is low when both the inputs are low.
  • Logic equation Y = A + B.

NOT Gate

  • One input signal and one output signal, also called as inverter.
  • Output is always opposite state of the input.
  • Logic equation Y = A
  • Where is A is the complement of A.

NAND (Not AND) Gate

  • Two or more input signals and one out signal.
  • It has high output when at least one of the input is zero or low.
  • All input signals must be high to obtain low output.
  • Logic equation Y = A . B

NOR (Not OR) Gate

  • One or more input signals and one output signal.
  • If one of the input is high then output is low
  • Logic equation Y = A + B

XOR (Exclusive OR)Gate

  • Two or more input signal and one output signal.
  • Output is low when both the inputs are same.
  • Logic equation Y = A XOR B

XNOR (Exclusive NOR) Gate

  • Two or more input signal and one output signal.
  • Is combination of XOR gate followed by invertor.
  • Output is high when both the inputs are same.
  • Logic equation Y = A XOR B

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Tip Box

Logic gates are the basic components of all electronic components, without them electronic system can't be run.


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