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Digital Codes

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Computers and digital circuits processes information in the binary format. Each character is assigned 7 or 8 bit binary code to indicate its character which may be numeric, alphabet or special symbol. Example - Binary number 1000001 represents 65(decimal) in straight binary code, alphabet A in ASCII code and 41(decimal) in BCD code.

Types of codes

BCD (Binary-Coded Decimal) code :

  • Four-bit code that represents one of the ten decimal digits from 0 to 9.
  • Example - (37)10 is represented as 0011 0111 using BCD code, rather than (100101)2 in straight binary code.
  • Thus BCD code requires more bits than straight binary code.
  • Still it is suitable for input and output operations in digital systems.

Note: 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, and 1111 are INVALID CODE in BCD code.

ASCII (American Standard Code Information Interchange) code :

  • It is 7-bit or 8-bit alphanumeric code.
  • 7-bit code is standard ASCII supports 127 characters.
  • Standard ASCII series starts from 00h to 7Fh, where 00h-1Fh are used as control characters and 20h-7Fh as graphics symbols.
  • 8-bit code is extended ASCII supports 256 symbols where special graphics and math's symbols are added.
  • Extended ASCII series starts from 80h to FFh.

EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) code

  • 8-bit alphanumeric code developed by IBM, supports 256 symbols.
  • It was mainly used in IBM mainframe computers.

Gray code

  • Differs from leading and following number by a single bit.
  • Gray code for 2 is 0011 and for 3 is 0010.
  • No weights are assigned to the bit positions.
  • Extensively used in shaft encoders.

Excess-3 code

  • 4-bit code is obtained by adding binary 0011 to the natural BCD code of the digit.
  • Example - decimal 2 is coded as 0010 + 0011 = 0101 as Excess-3 code.
  • It not weighted code.
  • Its self-complimenting code, means 1's complement of the coded number yields 9's complement of the number itself.
  • Used in digital system for performing substraction operations.

« Previous Point - Hexadecimal Number System Next Point - Logic Gates »


Tip Box

Error dectecting and correcting schemes

  • Repetition codes
  • Parity bits
  • Checksums
  • Cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs)
  • Cryptographic hash functions
  • Error-correcting codes
  • Error correction
  • Automatic repeat request
  • Error-correcting code
  • Hybrid schemes

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