Electronics is the branch of physics that deals with the electric effects on electronic components. In this chapter we are going to concentrate on modern digital electronics.

Here are some basic definitions that you should know.

- Current: It is flow of electrons, measured in Amperes.
- AC (Alternating Current): An electric current that flows in one direction steadily.
- DC (Direct Current): An electric current that flows in both direction in cyclic manner.
- Frequency: The number of signal cycles completed in one second is called as frequency, measured in Hertz.
- Voltage: The electric force that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit, expressed in Volts.
- Resistance: It is the opposition to the flow of current, measured in ohms O.
- Capacitance: It is capacity to store an electric charge, measured in Farads.
- Inductance: An electrical phenomenon whereby an Electro Motive Force (EMF) is generated in a closed circuit by a change in the flow of current.
- Decibel: A logarithmic unit of sound intensity.

Following are the points which are covered in this chapter.

- Components
- Measuring instruments
- Number system
- Binary number system
- Decimal number system
- Octal number system
- Hexadecimal number system
- Codes
- Logic gates
- Flip-flops
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
- Adders

Did you know, why the middle pin in three pin socket is thicker.

As leakage current gives shocks to an individual, it needs to flow through the earthing wire, and resisitance should be as low compared to that of the phase and neutral wires.

Hence larger cross sectional area reduces the resistance and provides a easy path for the current to flow.

So the middle pin is always thicker than the other two pins in a three pin socket.

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