- A cable consists of one, two or more wires which connects input and output devices to the system via ports and connectors.
Twisted pair cable:
- Consists of two copper wires insulated from each other by plastic.
- Each wire has two or more copper wires stranded together.
- This reduces sensitivity to EMI and tendency to radiate radio frequency noise.
- Twisted pair cables are of two types - shielded and unshielded.
- Shielded cable are enclosed in foil wrap and woven in copper shield.
- Unshielded cables are not enclosed.
- Commonly used in telephone network.
- Are less expensive and easy to install.
Cat 5 Cable
- Consists of four pairs shielded twisted color coded copper wire.
- Green, blue, orange and brown are four pair colors.
- Each pair has common color between them, where one wire in the pair is solid in color and other being a white color with a colored strip. E.g.: orange for solid color wire and white/orange for the striped wire.
- Supports 100 MBPS speed with length limit of 100 meters.
- Starting and ending points of the cable are joined by RJ-45 connector.
- Most commonly used in computer networking and are low in cost.
- Cat 5e is enhanced Cat 5 cable supporting 1000 MBPS speed with length limit of 350 meters
- Replaces multiple wire lines by solid copper core.
- Inner (Central) conductor is solid copper wire or stranded wire.
- Outer conductor forms a tube surrounding inner conductor called as shield, which is made-up of braided wires, metallic foils or both. This serves as a ground and protects inner conductor from EMI.
- An Insulator layer separates the outer and inner conductor.
- Jacket made-up of plastic protects cable from damage.
- Widely used in connecting PCs.
- Cost is high compare to twisted pair cable.
- Light waves can be efficiently conducted through transparent glass fiber known as fiber-optic cable.
- Center conductor consists of fiber optic tube which is highly refined glass or plastic.
- Fiber optic tube is half the diameter of human hair.
- Fiber is coated with cladding to reflect signals back to avoid signal loss.
- Plastic sheet (Jacket) protects from damage.
- Transmits data using beams of light at light speed.
- Extremely high bandwidth supporting data transfer speed in GBPS.
- Less sensitive to EMI.
- Cost is high compare to co-axial cable.
Did you know RJ 45 cable is also called as Ethernet cable or CAT 5 cable.