Generations of Computers
Generation of computers came into the mind, when humans were unable to perform some large calculations. So they created a calculating machine called as computers. As the needs of humans gone on increasing, there was development in the computer system.
First Generation (Mid 1940's )
- Computers were using Vacuum tubes (Valves) as an electronic component.
- Machine language was used.
- Input was given through punch cards, paper tapes and results in the form of printouts.
- Computers were as big as room in size.
- Cost was very high.
Second Generation (1956)
- Vacuum tubes were replaced by the transistors.
- Size of transistors was much smaller than vacuum tubes.
- Assembly language was used.
- Consumed less power, faster and reliable.
- Size of computers were came down.
- Price of computers were also reduced.
Third Generation (1964)
- Integrated Circuits(IC's) made up of small crystal of silicon semiconductor were used.
- Structured programming language C and COBOL was used.
- Speed and efficiency were increased.
- Inputs were given through keyboards and output through monitors.
- Size of computers, power consumption, heat generation and cost were decreased in greater extent.
Fourth Generation (1971 and present)
- Microprocessor chip were used, made up of thousands of Integrated Circuits build on a single silicon chip.
- Object oriented programming language and domain specific language SQL for database access.
- High processing speed, high reliability and low power consumption.
- Size and cost of computers were cut down.
Fifth Generation (Present and future)
- Computers those are dealing with Artificial Intelligence (AI), expert systems and robotics are in 5th generation.
- These computers are still in development phase.
- Main goal is to respond to the natural language.
- Use of Quantum, Molecular and Nano technology is going to change the face of computers in coming years.
Full form of COMPUTER: (Common Oriented Machine Particularly Used for Technology Education and Research).
In 1837 Charles Babbage, a mathematics professional conceptualize and designed the first stored-program mechanical computer.