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Bus Lines

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Description

  • Printed metal traceses on the motherboard or circuit board called as bus lines.
  • CPU communicates with other devices on motherboard like memory, expansion cards, co-processor and keyboards via bus lines.
  • Data is in the form of electrical signals either low current zero or high current one.
  • Set of parallel buses is like highway for the data, which increases the computer performance.
  • Advantages
    • Simplifies the design of the motherboard.
    • Reduces the circuitry and the cost.

Types of buses

Data bus:

  • Is a path that connects the CPU, memory and other devices on the motherboard.
  • Data is transferred form one system component to another using these lines.
  • More number of bus lines increases the speed of data transfer because each bus line can transfer one bit at a time.
  • The number of bit processor determines the value of data bus i.e. 32-bit processor has 32-bit data bus.

Address bus:

  • Is same like data bus.
  • Connection is between CPU and RAM and carries memory address instead of data.
  • Number of address bus lines determines maximum number of memory address.

Bus has four communication standard

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture):

  • 8 bit or 16 bit wide.
  • Transfer 16 bit at a time with 98 slots black in color.
  • It has speed up to 8-40 Mhz.

EISA (Extended ISA):

  • ISA cards works on EISA slots and supports plug and play.
  • Automatically configures adaptor cards by simply plugging in.
  • Transfers 32 bit of data at a time.
  • Brown in a color and has 188 slots.

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnection):

  • Can transfer 32 or 64 bit data at a time.
  • Speed up to 38-48 MHz with 120 slots.
  • White in a color and supports plug and play.

USB ( Universal Serial Bus):

  • Speed varies between 12 MBPS to 4.3 GBPS depending on version 1.0, 2.0, 3.0.
  • Supports plug and play, hot plugging etc.

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Tip Box

There are also two other types of buses

Control Bus - It determines whether the data should be written or read from the data bus.

Expansion Bus - Used to connect the computer’s peripheral devices such as modem, printer and scanner with the CPU.


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